Detector – PMT – CCD – Hybrid – spectrometer – Different – Metal Analyzer

  Danataif Co.  is the exclusive representative of spectrometers sales and after sales services of Belec GmbH in Germany. These three type  PMT, CCD and Hybrid (HYBRID) Detector use in Belec Spectrometer.

spectrometer PMT detector

spectrometer PMT detector

PMT (PHOTOMULTIPLIER) TUBE:

An analog optical detector that is most used in spectrometers. Advantages of these sensors are long lifetime and higher accuracy than CCDs.
PMT is short form of the Photomultiplier tube.

The PMT used in Hammatsu Japan’s Belec Spectrometers . Which is one of the strongest companies in the field of instrument equipment manufacturing.

Dynode

When a photon hits a cathode, an electron is emitted from the cathode. It hits the first Dynode page, and two new electrons are emitted from the Dynode collision.
Eventually, after the collision of the electrons with the opposite plates, Dynode increases by 9 times.
The photomultiplier detector used in these quantum meters have the best quality and precision.

The first PMT

Efforts to build a useful electronic TV camera were one of the factors accelerating the speed of PMT Detector . Although this was not the first goal of many. Television programs were produced by the same early-stage cameras in the early 1930s and broadcast on the primary technology (ICONSKUB).

These early type TVs did not require high sensitivity. PMTs became more sensitive to the television industry, making the TVs much better.

The first PMT Detectors tested by a group in 1934 was made using a cathode in the vacuum of photoelectric phenomena and secondary emission and to obtain amplified electrons.

This device consisted of a semi-cylindrical cone, a secondary discharge axis, and a plate that covers this secondary emitter. This device worked well with a frequency of about 10 kilohertz.

PMT Detector

in Belec spectrometers use PMT or CCD Detector. Researchers were looking for better results and performance than PMTs. From empirical experiments it was concluded that the second radiation electron is independent of the initial voltage; therefore, a single-severity PMT was a finite device, so they were able to make multi-intensity PMTs that photoelectrons were emitted at different intensities, and this was a great success.

In this device, photoelectrons , in place of the cathode with the highest voltage, collide with a number of cathodes, this was only possible by the application of a strong magnetic field.

Since PMTs follow the rules of magnetization, John Racchman of the RCA lab guessed that they would have to work well in an electrostatic field and provided a brilliant future for PMTs. These types of PMT Detectors are still being produced.

Hamamatsu PMT (Photomultplier Tube)

CCD (CHARGE COUPLED DEVICE):

This Detector (sensor) means a pair of rechargeable batteries. The CCD is a semiconductor chip. It has a light-sensitive area, and there is a line between it.

PIXEL

The CCD is composed of light sensitive points, each of which is called Pixel. Each pixel acts like a dynode and produces a small voltage dependent on the intensity of light.
This detector has a different pixel resolution, which can reach up to 10,000 pixels. The detector used in the inspect and optron is up to 3000 pixels.

Advantage of CCD versus PMT

In Spectrometers, the amount of ultraviolet light emitted by the detector determines the amount of element in the test metal.

The CCD advantage over PMT is easy and quick to calibrate.

History

The original CCD detector structure was proposed in 1969 by Boyle and Smith from the Bell Labs. This structure consists of a series of metal electrode arrays of MOS capacitors, each of which is connected to one of the three electrodes in the same row. The two were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2009 for their invention.

Imaging

The first CCD with 100×100 pixel about imaging  was manufactured in 1974 by Fairchild Electronics. The following year, the device was used in television cameras for commercial media, and later in telescopes and medical imaging devices. detector manufacture was very important for humans.

The basis of operation:

The basis of the CCD detector work is to store and load the load dynamically in a series of MOS capacitors (in this piece of silicon as semiconductor, silicon oxide as an insulation and aluminum for the Gate electrode, which is why they are known as MOS). A MOS capacitor is placed on a P type receptacle, giving it a positive and large pulse. A potential exists under the gate electrodes. In fact, the surface potential of a well is a potential that can be used to store the load. If the positive pulse is inserted sufficiently over a period of time, the electrons are accumulated at the surface and the inverse state of the state becomes stable. The source of these loads is the electrons produced by heat at or near the surface.

CCD opration

CCD opration

resulting

In fact, the inverse conditions indicate the capacity of the well to store the load. The time required to fill the well in the form of heat is called the thermal relaxation time.

For good material, the thermal relaxation time can be much longer than the time the load is stored in the CCD detector function.

What is needed in this process is a simple method for fast and unloaded loads from a potential well to the adjacent well.

CCD (charge coupled device) detectors

HYBRID Detector

Hybrid means combine, due to the combination of both the PMT and the CCD detector. Which has the benefits of both detectors.

The Belec Company manufactured Portable spectrometers model COMPACT PORT HLC by Hybrid detectors.

in order to view the difference between PMT CCD Click on the download Button.