CCD (CHARGE COUPLED DEVICE):
This Detector (sensor) means a pair of rechargeable batteries. The CCD is a semiconductor chip. It has a light-sensitive area, and there is a line between it.
The CCD is composed of light sensitive points, each of which is called Pixel. Each pixel acts like a dynode and produces a small voltage dependent on the intensity of light.
This detector has a different pixel resolution, which can reach up to 10,000 pixels. The detector used in the inspect and optron is up to 3000 pixels.
Advantage of CCD versus PMT
In Spectrometers, the amount of ultraviolet light emitted by the detector determines the amount of element in the test metal.
The CCD advantage over PMT is easy and quick to calibrate.
The original CCD detector structure was proposed in 1969 by Boyle and Smith from the Bell Labs. This structure consists of a series of metal electrode arrays of MOS capacitors, each of which is connected to one of the three electrodes in the same row. The two were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2009 for their invention.
The first CCD with 100×100 pixel about imaging was manufactured in 1974 by Fairchild Electronics. The following year, the device was used in television cameras for commercial media, and later in telescopes and medical imaging devices. detector manufacture was very important for humans.
The basis of operation:
The basis of the CCD detector work is to store and load the load dynamically in a series of MOS capacitors (in this piece of silicon as semiconductor, silicon oxide as an insulation and aluminum for the Gate electrode, which is why they are known as MOS). A MOS capacitor is placed on a P type receptacle, giving it a positive and large pulse. A potential exists under the gate electrodes. In fact, the surface potential of a well is a potential that can be used to store the load. If the positive pulse is inserted sufficiently over a period of time, the electrons are accumulated at the surface and the inverse state of the state becomes stable. The source of these loads is the electrons produced by heat at or near the surface.
In fact, the inverse conditions indicate the capacity of the well to store the load. The time required to fill the well in the form of heat is called the thermal relaxation time.
For good material, the thermal relaxation time can be much longer than the time the load is stored in the CCD detector function.
What is needed in this process is a simple method for fast and unloaded loads from a potential well to the adjacent well.